Edinburgh has been the capital of Scotland since 1437, when it replaced Scone. It is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament, and the highest courts in Scotland. The city is in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh is Scotland’s second-most populous city after Glasgow. It has a medieval Old Town and an elegant Georgian New Town with gardens and neoclassical buildings. Edinburgh is an international center of learning since the renaissance, a financial services hub since the 17th century, and a center for science and technology since the industrial revolution. Today, Edinburgh continues to pioneer in these fields, leading the world in Life Science research, Fin-Tech, and the development of renewable energy solutions. The city has also evolved in areas such as digital technologies, filmmaking, creative industries, and advanced robotics.